'Id Prayers (Salatul 'Idain)
The Muslim Students' Association
of the United States and Canada
Reprinted with permission
'ID PRAYERS (SALATUL
'Id prayer is a strongly recommended and important
tradition in Islam and the Prophet (peace be upon him) never neglected
it. He is reported to have ordered the men, women and children to proceed
to the 'Id prayer ground.
Even menstruating women are encouraged
to go to the 'Id ground but they should keep away from the actual place
Self Preparation for 'Id Prayer
It is highly recommended to have major ablution
(Islamically correct bath or ghusl) and to use the most beautiful dresses
and the best perfumes one can obtain. The Prophet (peace be upon him) used
to do so. There is also a tradition that one should eat something, preferably
dates, before going to the 'Id ul Fitr prayer and to eat nothing before
'Id ul Adha prayer.
The time for 'Id ul Adha is when the sun has
risen two meters (7 ft.) above the horizon and the time for 'Id ul Fitr
is while the sun has risen to three meters (10 ft.) above the horizon.
'Id prayers cannot be said after midday.
It is better to hold 'Id prayers in an open
place or ground if there is no obstacle like rain or bad weather. The Prophet
never performed 'Id prayers in the mosque except once due to rain.
No Adhan, No Iqamah:
There is neither Adhan nor Iqamah for 'Id
Performance of 'Id Prayers:
'Id prayer consists of two Rak'a with twelve
takbeeras, (Allahu Akbar), seven in the first Rak'a and five in the second.
In the first Rak'a just after takbeeratul Ihram, say seven Takbeeras lifting
your hands with each Takbeera and after finishing seven Takbeeras go on
with prayer in the usual way (reading al Fatiha and surah aloud.) In the
beginning of the second Rak'a say five Takbeeras in the usual way. There
is no special Dhikr between Takbeeras - you can say Subhanalla Walhamdu
Lillahi Wa Laa Ilaha Illallahu Wallahu Akbar.
After performing the Salat, the Imam must
deliver a khutba just like jum'a khutba. But Imam Nawawi and some other
scholars say that the khutba of 'Id is not broken up into two parts with
a period of sitting in between.
On returning home from the salat, it is recommended
to take a different route than that which was taken to the prayer.
It is strongly recommended to repeat in a
loud voice (a) Allahu Akbar, on the way to the salat and while waiting
for the imam; (b) to repeat Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illa Allahu,
wa Allahu Akbar, wa lillahi-l-hamd after every congregational prayer starting
from the fajr, (dawn prayer) on the day of Arafat (ninth day of Dhul Hijja),
to the 'asr (afternoon prayer) on the last of the Days of Tashriq (the
thirteenth day of Dhul Hijja). For the Pilgrims, the starting time is the
dhur, (noon prayer) of the Day of Nahr (tenth of Dhul Hijja).
It is clear that this takbir applies only
to 'Id ul Adha while the first applies to both.
Zakatul Fitr is obligatory for every Muslim
man and woman, adult and child. It should be distributed before the prayer
of 'Id. Every person, having savings beyond his own and his family's feeding
for one day and night should give two dollars for himself and for everyone
he looks after. Zakatul Fitr is meant to purify the fasting (saum) and
to keep everybody in society happy and pleasant - rich and poor equally
- so that nobody should go hungry on that day. Thus, it presents a magnificent
example of comprehensive social justice in Islam.
Sacrificial Slaughter (udhhiya):
Udhhiya or sacrificial slaughter on 'Id ul
Adha is a strongly recommended tradition. It reflects the fact that the
Muslim being a committed, obedient servant of Allah is always ready to
sacrifice anything, even his life, in Allah's way. Udhhiya is an imitation
and remembrance of the great sacrifice that Prophet Ibrahim submitted to
God by attempting to sacrifice his own son, Isma'il, to fulfil the command
of Allah Almighty.
The following are the essentials of sacrifice:
i) Allah's name (Bismillahi Allahu Akbar)
must be said while slaughtering.
ii) Udhhiya cannot be slaughtered before
'Id prayer. It should be done immediately after prayers or in the three
days after 'Id: Dhul Hajj 11, 12, 13.
iii) Udhhiya can be a goat, sheep, cow,
bull, buffalo or camel of either sex. Pregnant female animals should not
be slaughtered. Seven persons can share in the last named four animals.
iv) The meat of the slaughtered animal
should be divided into three parts. It is essential to give one third as
gift to the poor and the needy. One third should be given to friends and
relatives and one third kept to oneself.
v) For one who intends to make the sacrificial
slaughter it is sunnah not to shave his hair or clip his nails after Dhul
Hajj moon is sighted, until the time of slaughter. (Sahih Muslim)
Enjoyment in 'Id Days:
Islam urges us to enjoy life with every lawful
means of enjoyment. Especially on 'Id days the Islamic spirit of enjoyment
and brotherhood becomes manifest. Thus Islam nourishes the spiritual aspirations
of mankind along with its physical abilities.
On these days everyone should be happy
with his wife, his children, his Muslim brothers and sisters. Show mutual
concern by exchanging gifts, smiling on the face of each other and expressing
sincere love and affection to show the bondage of real brotherhood which
stems from the belief in Allah. All Muslims should cherish brotherly feeling
in their hearts toward each other, avoid talking behind each other's backs,
avoid blaming one another and avoid causing disruption in the Muslim community.
These are days when we should glorify the symbols of Allah and observe
His signs to have piety in our hearts.